Abstract
An: 2020, Nr.1, Articol Nr. 6
Title: 

VOMERONASAL ORGAN IN HUMANS – STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS: A SHORT REVIEW

Authors: 

      Carmen Martinescu - Transilvania University of Braşov, Faculty of Medicine; „Francisc I. Rainer” – Doctoral School
      Cristiana Glavce, Al.T. Ispas - „Francisc I. Rainer” Anthropology Institute, of the Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania
      S. Toma - Transilvania University of Braşov, Faculty of Medicine
      VOMERONASAL ORGAN IN HUMANS – STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS: A SHORT REVIEW ABSTRACT: Vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a peripheral sensory paired organ, localized in the nasal septal mucosa, near to the vomer bone. It was first described by Jacobson in 1811. Virtually, some vertebrates possess this system, but its structure differs, depending on species. Vomeronasal system plays a crucial role in pheromone detection, and in animal reproduction. This anatomical structure is very variable in primates, while in humans, its existence and functions are still controversial. In humans, it develops during the embryonic life and becomes a vestige in adults, with nonoperational sensory function. Histological studies show that human VNO, from the initial fetal periods presents high cellular density and projects axons to the superior centers. (37,38) After this, he dissociates from the nerves and population of sensorial cells diminishe fetal period (over 12 weeks), the walls became thicker and the epithelium becomes ciliated in contrast with the microvillar epithelium of the rest of the mammals. At the new-born, child and adult the histological examination reveal the persistency human VNO, like an epithelial duct which receives glandular secretions, so it can be considered a part of the glandular system of the nasal mucosa. (39) On animals, this system represents the base of the detection system of pheromone. Even though there exists a lot of functional and behavioral studies which suggest the existence of a pheromonal communication on human species, the absence of a conductor way from the vomeronasal epithelium to telencephalon and particularly the absence of the secondary olfactive bulb consists the major obstacle in the veracity of the study. The main objective of this paper is to review the most recent research regarding the structure and functions of the VNO in humans, and to pave the way for further investigations on this topic.
Key words: VOMERONASAL ORGAN, PHEROMONES, ACCESSORY OLFACTORY SYSTEM, VOMERONASAL RECEPTOR, CHEMOSENSORY, JACOBSON’S ORGAN
Full text
archive
Current edition
2020
Previous editions